June is a significant month in the United States as it is recognized as African American Music Appreciation Month. This month-long celebration honors the rich contributions of African American musicians, singers, composers, and songwriters who have left an indelible mark on American culture. African American music has a long history that reflects the struggles and triumphs of black people in the United States. It has influenced every genre, from blues to jazz, R&B to hip-hop, and everything in between. Join us as we explore the sounds of culture and celebrate African American Music Appreciation Month.
Origins of African-American Music
African-American music has its roots in the experiences of enslaved Africans who were brought to America during the transatlantic slave trade. Despite the oppressive conditions they faced, these Africans preserved their cultural traditions through music and dance. This early form of African-American music was characterized by rhythms and sounds that reflected African heritage.
The music of African Americans can be traced back to the days of slavery. In the fields, as slaves were working, you could hear them singing songs to pass the time. These songs were a way for them to share their life stories. Many slave owners began to forbid their workers from using their own languages to chant or use drums. Owners believed this was a form of communication, getting the message out to other slaves about impending escapes or insurrections.
One musical genre that has roots back to the days of slavery is gospel music. As slaves became Christians, a religion forced upon them, they began singing hymns later termed spirituals. These spirituals later evolved into gospel music. With the abolition of slavery, a new form of music began to emerge. Free blacks found themselves expressing their disappointment in a post-slavery society. This genre became known as the blues.
The earliest forms of African-American music included work songs, spirituals, and gospel music. These musical genres were often performed in groups and served as a means of communication, conveying messages of hope, resilience, and perseverance. African-American music continued to evolve over time, with new styles and sounds emerging as African Americans faced new challenges and opportunities in America. Today, African-American music is an integral part of American culture, influencing a range of musical genres and inspiring countless musicians and fans across the country.
The blues is a musical genre that originated in the African-American communities of the Southern United States. It is a style of music that was born out of pain and struggle. The blues emerged during a time of great change in America when many African Americans were moving from rural areas to cities in search of better opportunities.
With the abolition of slavery, free blacks found themselves expressing their disappointment in a post-slavery society. The blues was their way of expressing their sadness, loneliness, and hardship. The music was simple and emotional, usually consisting of three chords and a basic melody.
The lyrics of the blues were often about personal experiences, ranging from love and heartbreak to poverty and racism. The themes of the blues were universal and relatable to many people, regardless of their race or background.
The blues had a profound influence on the development of other musical genres, such as jazz and rock and roll. It is considered to be the foundation of American popular music and continues to be celebrated and appreciated today.
In African American Music Appreciation Month, it is important to recognize the significance of the blues in shaping American culture. It is a genre that has endured for over a century, inspiring generations of musicians and bringing joy and comfort to countless people around the world.
Jazz is an American music genre that originated in the early 20th century in African American communities in New Orleans. It has been said that jazz is the only truly American art form. This unique music style played a critical role in the Civil Rights Movement and was integral to African American history.
Billie Holiday’s “Strange Fruit” is often considered the first and most influential jazz protest song. The lyrics depict the lynching of black people in the United States, and the song became a powerful symbol of the struggle for civil rights.
Jazz songwriters and instrumentalists used their music to further the Civil Rights Movement. They wrote and performed songs that reflected the struggles of African Americans in the United States. Jazz music became a vehicle for change and helped to bring attention to the issues that were affecting black people at the time.
One of the most prominent examples of jazz music’s role in the Civil Rights Movement is Ben Branch and the Operation Breadbasket Orchestra. Branch was a saxophonist who was invited by Martin Luther King Jr. to perform at a rally in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1968. Branch’s performance at the rally was interrupted by King’s assassination. The following day, Branch led a procession of mourners through the streets of Memphis, playing “Precious Lord, Take My Hand.” His music became a symbol of the movement and a powerful force for change.
Jazz music has played an important role in the cultural history of the United States, particularly for African Americans. It continues to inspire new generations of musicians and music lovers alike, making African American Music Appreciation Month all the more relevant.
Rhythm and Blues
Rhythm and blues, or R&B, is a music genre that originated in African-American communities during the 1940s. It emerged as a fusion of African-American blues, gospel, jazz, and swing, as well as the emerging genres of rock and roll and soul.
The development of R&B was closely tied to social and political changes in America. The migrations of African Americans to urban centers surrounding World War I and II led to the growth of music scenes in cities like Chicago, Detroit, and Memphis. These communities developed their own styles of music that reflected their experiences and culture.
The civil rights movement also had a significant impact on the development of R&B. The music became a powerful form of expression for African Americans, who used it to articulate their struggles and aspirations. It was also a means of protest, with artists such as Sam Cooke and Marvin Gaye using their music to call attention to social injustices.
Despite its popularity, R&B was initially marginalized as an African American music form. It was often referred to as “race music” and was played only on radio stations and in venues that catered to African-American audiences. However, with the advent of commercial recordings by and for African Americans in 1920 with Mamie Smith’s “Crazy Blues,” R&B began to gain mainstream attention.
Over time, R&B evolved and became an important influence on the development of other genres of popular music. The emergence of Motown in the 1960s and the rise of soul music in the 1970s helped to cement R&B’s place in American music history. Today, R&B continues to be an important part of popular music, with artists like Beyoncé, Bruno Mars, and Rihanna drawing on its traditions while putting their own unique spin on the genre.
In celebrating African American Music Appreciation Month, it’s important to recognize the contributions of R&B to American culture and to remember the social and political contexts in which it emerged. Through R&B, African Americans have used music to express their identity, celebrate their culture, and inspire social change.
Disco music itself evolved from different subcultures, with origins in Philadelphia’s R&B scene in the late ‘60s/early ‘70s, featuring African-American and Latino musicians and audiences, and in private dance parties thrown in the underground gay community of New York. This genre of music was characterized by a fusion of funk, soul, and Latin rhythms, creating unique dance music that captivated listeners of all ages.
Disco music grew out of the club culture of the time and became popular in dance clubs all across America. The rise of disco coincided with the sexual and cultural revolutions of the late ’60s/early ’70s, as disco clubs provided a space for people to express themselves and let loose on the dance floor.
Characteristic Disco Musics of disco music include a strong emphasis on rhythm and bass, as well as the use of synthesizers and other electronic instruments. Disco music often featured a four-on-the-floor beat, where the bass drum hit on all four beats of the measure, creating a consistent dance rhythm.
Some of the most famous disco musicians of all time include Donna Summer, The Bee Gees, Gloria Gaynor, Chic, and Kool and the Gang. Disco clubs such as Studio 54 and The Loft became legendary for their high-energy dance floors and over-the-top parties.
In the early 1970s, New York City’s emerging disco culture was coming up as a gay club culture, with fans, musicians, and dancers who were primarily African American and Latina/Latino. The DJ became a new kind of star, controlling the sound and creating the atmosphere by manipulating the lights from the DJ booth. Their names often would be well known to dancers such as the most influential DJ Larry Levan. Resided at the Paradise Garage, Levan kept the dancers on the dance floor playing a wide-ranging repertoire. By the mid-1970s, a distinctive disco sound dominated the scene. Observed by Joe Radcliffe, Billboard’s (music trade magazine) dance editor during the emergence of disco, “in 1974–1975, the disco music scene was literally controlled by a handful of Black artists affiliated with a small group of specialized record labels led by Motown and Philadelphia International Records” (also known as the Philly Sound). Among the most influential disco songs are the recordings of MFSB—an acronym for “Mother Father Sister Brother”—produced by Philadelphia International Records. Some of the most famous disco songs include “Stayin’ Alive” by The Bee Gees, “I Will Survive” by Gloria Gaynor, “Le Freak” by Chic, “Dancing Queen” by ABBA, and “Disco Inferno” by The Trammps.https://timeline.carnegiehall.org/genres/disco
Overall, disco music represents a unique cultural moment in American history, one that celebrated diversity, freedom, and the power of dance. It’s no wonder that disco continues to inspire new generations of musicians and dancers alike, making it a lasting part of the American musical landscape.
Rap is a unique musical form of vocal delivery that has become a cultural force around the world. This musical genre incorporates rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street language to convey a wide range of messages. The components of rap include content, flow, and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that it is usually performed off-time to musical accompaniment.
Rap has roots in the West African griot tradition, certain vocal styles of blues and jazz, and an African-American insult game called Playing the Dozens. These precursors laid the foundation for modern rap, which originated in the Bronx, New York City in the 1970s alongside the hip hop genre and cultural movement.
One of the distinguishing features of rap is the delivery of its lyrics over a beat, which is provided by a DJ, turntablist, or beatboxer when performing live. This allows for a high degree of musical collaboration and improvisation within the rap community. Additionally, rap occupies a gray area between speech, prose, poetry, and singing, which has contributed to its widespread popularity and influence.
Hip hop is a genre that originated in the Bronx, New York City in the 1970s and has since become a global phenomenon. It was born out of the cultural and social upheaval that was taking place in New York City at the time, with young people finding creative ways to express themselves through music, dance, and art.
Hip hop is characterized by its rhythmic beats and rhyming lyrics that often tell stories of struggle and triumph, as well as social and political commentary. It has become a powerful force in shaping popular culture, with its influence being felt in fashion, language, and even politics.
Some of the most iconic figures in hip hop include Grandmaster Flash, Run-DMC, Tupac Shakur, and Notorious B.I.G. Their contributions to the genre have been significant, paving the way for a new generation of artists who continue to push the boundaries of hip hop today.
Hip hop has also been the subject of controversy, with some criticizing its use of profanity and its portrayal of violence and materialism. However, others see it as a powerful tool for social change and empowerment, with artists using their platforms to address issues such as racism, police brutality, and inequality.
Today, hip hop continues to evolve and expand, with artists from all backgrounds and walks of life contributing to the genre. African Americans remain at the forefront of the movement, with their contributions to hip hop serving as a reminder of the rich cultural heritage that continues to inspire and shape American music.
Another genre of African-American music that has had a huge impact on the music industry is house music. House music is a form of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the 1980s. It is characterized by a steady pulse and a 4/4 time signature played around 120 beats per minute. The music is usually repetitive with the use of electronic instruments, synthesizers, and drum machines.
House music gained popularity in the underground club scenes in Chicago before spreading to other American cities such as New York, Detroit, and eventually internationally. It became the foundation for many other genres of electronic dance music and has remained an integral part of the club scene worldwide.
The four characteristics of house music include:
1. Repetitive 4/4 beat
2. Use of electronic instruments and drum machines
3. Heavy bassline
4. Soulful vocal samples
There are several subgenres of house music that have emerged over the years. Here are 11 examples:
1. Acid house
2. Deep house
3. Tech house
4. Progressive house
5. Electro house
7. Afro house
8. Future house
9. Bass house
10. Minimal house
11. UK garage
House music has been influential in the development of dance music and has given rise to many other sub-genres. The energy and rhythm of the music continue to inspire and move people worldwide. African-American musicians and producers have played an important role in the creation and evolution of this genre, contributing yet again to the rich tapestry of American culture.
Contemporary African-American Music
As we move into the present day, African-American music continues to evolve and influence popular culture. From the powerful and emotive ballads of Beyoncé to the boundary-pushing experimentation of Kendrick Lamar, contemporary African-American musicians continue to break barriers and push the envelope of what music can do.
One of the most significant developments in recent years has been the rise of trap music. Originating in the South in the early 2000s, this subgenre of hip hop features heavy beats, dark lyrics, and rapid-fire rhymes. Its popularity has exploded in recent years, with artists like Future and Migos topping the charts and dominating the airwaves.
Another major trend in contemporary African-American music is the fusion of different genres. Artists like Childish Gambino draw from a range of musical styles, blending soul, funk, hip hop, and jazz to create something entirely new and unique.
Throughout it all, the roots of African-American music remain a powerful force. From gospel to the blues, from jazz to R&B, the traditions that shaped African-American music continue to shape the artists and songs of today. By celebrating African-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor this rich heritage and all those who have contributed to it, past and present.–MM